The Low Voltage Directive (LVD) was introduced at a time when
directives contained detailed technical annexes which were intended to
supersede national laws. The LVD set out the essential protection
requirements, with the relevant technical details being defined by
standards-making organizations. This subsequently paved the way for what
were to be known as the New Approach Directives.
||The "Electrical Equipment" means any equipment designed for
use with a voltage rating of between 50 and 1000 V for alternating current (A.C.) and between 75 and
1500 V for direct current (D.C.). Therefore, this Directive is
called often "Low Voltage Directive" which applies to the vast majority of
electrical equipment in everyday use. The Electrical Equipment may be
placed on the market only if it does not endanger the safety of persons,
domestic animals or property. There are 11 principal elements of the safety
objectives listed in Annex I.
||The Low Voltage Directive was the first directive to
reference standards, and equipment which complies with harmonised safety
standards drawn up by common agreement is deemed to comply. Where
harmonised standards are not available, international standards which have
been agreed to may be used.|
||The Low Voltage Directive has been in existence for over
twenty years and, in conjunction with the CE Marking Directive 93/68/EEC
which amended it as and from 1st January 1995, note should be taken of
some of its main features.
||The Low Voltage Directive is not designed to impose
safety standards. Its primary purpose is to ensure free trade
through the removal of technical barriers.|
||Conformity with standards is not compulsory, but it
can be used as one means to demonstrate compliance with the safety
principles enshrined in the directive. |
||The Low Voltage Directive covers other aspects of
safety, including mechanical aspects.|
||There are some items that are excluded from the Low
Voltage Directives and those are listed in Annex II of the
||From a manufacturer's perspective a key element of the
directive is to be found in article 10, which relates to proof of
conformity. The Low Voltage Directive defines three means whereby such
conformity can be demonstrated; manufacturers declaration, certificates
and notified body marks. |
||While the manufacturer's declaration is in itself
sufficient to provide an "a priori" presumption of conformity of the
equipment to the directive (the equipment is deemed to comply unless the
importing country can prove otherwise), he must be entirely satisfied that
he is correct in this regard. |
||Today, when manufacturers are faced with highly competitive
markets, shortening product life cycles and continuing economic pressures,
they are turning to independent certification agencies to
provide the confidence and market advantage that is vital to their
business needs. The certification agencies assist by issuing certificates in a recognized
format, or by authorizing the use of a notified certification mark.
These mechanisms for certification do not exist in isolation, as
reciprocal recognition arrangements are in place between National
Certification Bodies at a number of levels.
||The IECEE scheme for the mutual recognition of test
reports, and the CENELEC Certification Agreement (CCA) are implemented by
many certification agencies.|
On the 1st January 1995, the Amending CE Marking Directive 93/68/EEC came into
force. Its purpose, as far as the LVD is concerned, is to modify the
conformity assessment and marking provisions so that the LVD can be fully
integrated into the new approach/global approach philosophy. (See Articles
13-15 of 93/68/EEC).
From the 1st January 1995 until 31st December 1996 a transitional
arrangement applies in that products may be placed on the market if they
comply with the marking requirements in force before 1st January 1995.
Alternatively, manufacturers may follow the provisions of the Amending
Directive and apply the CE Marking, making sure that it is clearly stated
that the Marking is evidence of compliance under the LVD. This will permit
free circulation, avoiding difficulties with national administrations.
From 1st January 1997, application of the CE Marking will indicate that the equipment
complies with the requirements of all relevant directives.
11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SAFETY OBJECTIVES
1. General conditions
a) The essential characteristics, the recognition and
observance of which will ensure that electrical equipment will be used safely
and in applications for which it was made, shall be marked on the equipment, or,
if this is not possible, on an accompanying notice.
b) The manufacturers or brand name or trade mark should be clearly printed on
the electrical equipment or, where that is not possible, on the packaging.
c) The electrical equipment, together with its component parts should be made in
such a way as to ensure that it can be safely and properly assembled and
d) The electrical equipment should be so designed and manufactured as to ensure
that protection against the hazards set out in points 2 and 3 of this Annex is
assured providing that the equipment is used in applications for which it was
made and is adequately maintained.
2. Protection against hazards arising from the electrical equipment
Measures of a technical nature should be prescribed in accordance with point 1,
in order to ensure:
a) that persons and domestic animals are adequately
protected against danger of physical injury or other harm which might be caused
by electrical contact direct or indirect;
b) that temperatures, arcs or radiation which would cause a danger, are not
c) that persons, domestic animals and property are adequately protected against
non-electrical dangers caused by the electrical equipment which are revealed by
d) that the insulation must be suitable for foreseeable conditions.
3. Protection against hazards which may be caused by external influences on the
Technical measures are to be laid down in accordance with point 1, in order to
a) that the electrical equipment meets the expected mechanical
requirements in such a way that persons, domestic animals and property are not
b) that the electrical equipment shall be resistant to non-mechanical influences
in expected environmental conditions, in such a way that persons, domestic
animals and property are not endangered;
c) that the electrical equipment shall not endanger persons, domestic animals
and property in foreseeable conditions of overload.
EQUIPMENT AND PHENOMENA OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF THE DIRECTIVE
- Electrical equipment for use in an explosive atmosphere
- Electrical equipment for radiology and medical purposes
- Electrical parts for goods and passenger lifts
- Electricity meters
- Plugs and socket outlets for domestic use
- Electric fence controllers
- Radio-electrical interference
- Specialized electrical equipment, for use on ships, aircraft or railways, which
complies with the safety provisions drawn up by international bodies in which
the Member States participate.